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Briefly: Why we do what we do | Tony Robbins | TED 2006

I’m the ‘why’ guy. I want to know why you do what you do.

Summarised by: Ishaqibrahim

I believe that the invisible force of internal drive, activated, is the most important thing. I’m here because I believe emotion is the force of life. It’s wonderful to think intellectually about how the life of the world is, especially those who are very smart can play this game in our head. But I really want to know what’s driving you.

01:36 Explore where you are today, for two reasons:
⦁ So that you can contribute more
⦁ We can appreciate people more and make connections that help us solve our challenges

What makes the difference in the quality of people’s lives? What in their performance?
I look at life and say there are two master lessons:
⦁ We have mastered the science of achievement
⦁ But one thing people have rarely mastered is the art of fulfillment
Because science is easy, right? We know the rules, you write the code and you get the results. But when it comes to fulfillment – that’s an art. It’s about appreciation and contribution.

03:32 I’ve had a laboratory investigate how somebody’s life changes if you’ve given everything to them. There are some people who end up the rest of their life with all this love, education, money and background and going in and out of rehab.
Some people have been through ultimate pain, psychologically, sexually, spiritually, emotionally abused – and not always, but often, they become some of the people that contribute the most to society.

04:08 Most of society thinks biography is destiny. We’ve got to remind ourselves that decision is the ultimate power.

If you ask people, why didn’t you achieve something? They tell you they didn’t have the knowledge, didn’t have the money, didn’t have the time, and didn’t have the technology. But that is not the defining factor.
05:56 The defining factor is never resources; it’s resourcefulness. If you have emotion, human emotion, you can get yourself to do anything. If you’re creative, playful, fun enough, you can get through to anybody. This is the ultimate resource.

07:28 What determines your resources? Three decisions:

⦁ What will you focus on?
⦁ Is this the end or the beginning?
⦁ Is God punishing me or rewarding me, or is this the roll of the dice?
The history of our world is these decisions. When a woman stands up and says, “No, I won’t go to the back of the bus.” She didn’t just affect her life. That decision shaped our culture.

09:09 What shapes you?

State. It isn’t your ability; it is your state. Your model of the world is what shapes your long term. It makes people make decisions.
To influence somebody, we need to know what already influences them, which includes the following:
⦁ What is their target? What are they after?
⦁ What is their map of the world? What is the belief system that tells them how to achieve their targets?

10:10 I believe there are six human needs:

⦁ Certainty.
Everyone needs the certainty that they can avoid pain and be comfortable. But while we go for certainty, if we get total certainty, what would we feel? We would feel bored out of our minds.
⦁ Uncertainty.
We need variety. We need a surprise.
⦁ Significance.
We all need to feel important, special, and unique. You can get significance a million ways, but to be significant, you’ve got to be unique and different.
⦁ Connection and love.
We all want it; most settle for connection because love’s too scary. But the truth is, we need it. We can do it through intimacy, friendship, prayer, through walking in nature.
13:01 These first four needs, every human finds a way to meet. I call them the needs of the personality. The last two are the needs of the spirit. And this is where fulfillment comes. You won’t get it from the first four.
⦁ You must grow.
If you’re not growing, you feel like hell. I believe the reason we grow is so we have something to give of value.
⦁ Contribute beyond ourselves.
The secret to living is giving. We all know life is not about me, it’s about we.

14:32 My father always said, “No one gives a shit.” And now somebody I don’t know, is just giving us food, looking out for us. It made me believe this: strangers care. And that made me decide if strangers care about me and my family, I care about them. I’m going to do something to make a difference.

15:11 I’m proud to tell you last year we fed 2 million people in 35 countries through our foundation. All during the holidays, Thanksgiving, Christmas, in different countries around the world.

15:38 Here’s what is different about people. We have the same needs. But are you a certainty freak, is that what you value the most, or uncertainty? What your lead system is tilts you in a different direction. As you move in a direction, you have a destination.
The second piece is the map. The operating system that tells you how to get there. Some people say “I’m going to save lives even if I die for other people,” and they’re a fireman, and somebody else says “I’m going to kill people to do it.” They’re trying to meet the same need of significance, but they have a different map.

16:22 The last piece is emotion. How many of you know somebody who, no matter what happens, finds a way to get pissed off? Or no matter what happens, they find a way to be happy or excited?

20:52 My invitation to you is: explore your web – the needs, beliefs, the emotions that are controlling you, for two reasons:

⦁ So there’s more of you to give
⦁ So you can appreciate what’s driving other people.
It’s the only way our world is going to change.

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Briefly: Do school kill creativity? Ken Robinson | TED2006

Ken Robinson · Author/educator

I have an interest in education.

The issue of education is considered tactless, too personal. Like religion, and money and other things. We have a huge vested interest in it, partly because it’s education that’s meant to take us into this future that we can’t grasp. Nobody has a clue, what the world will look like in five years’ time.  And yet we’re meant to be educating them for it. So the unpredictability, I think, is extraordinary.

02:24 Сhildren have really extraordinary capacities – their capacities for innovation. All kids have tremendous talents. And we squander them, pretty ruthlessly.

02:57  My contention is that creativity now is as important in education as literacy and we should treat it with the same status. 

If they don’t know, they’ll have a go. They’re not frightened of being wrong.
If you’re not prepared to be wrong, you’ll never come up with anything original.

And by the time they get to be adults, most kids have lost that capacity. They have become frightened of being wrong. And we run our companies like this. We stigmatize mistakes.
And we’re now running national education systems where mistakes are the worst thing you can make. And the result is that we are educating people out of their creative capacities.

06:06  So why is this?

08:28 Every education system on Earth has the same hierarchy of subjects. Every one. Doesn’t matter where you go. At the top are: 

  • mathematics;
  • languages;
  • humanities;
  • at the bottom are the arts. Everywhere on Earth.

And in pretty much every system too, there’s a hierarchy within the arts. 

  • art and music are normally given a higher status in schools
  • than drama and dance.

There isn’t an education system on the planet that teaches dance every day to children the way we teach them mathematics. I think this is rather important.

09:14 I think the whole purpose of public education throughout the world is to produce university professors.

11:03 Our education system is predicated on the idea of academic ability.  And there’s a reason. Around the world, there were no public systems of education, really, before the 19th century. They all came into being to meet the needs of industrialism.

So the hierarchy is rooted in two ideas:

  1.  that the most useful subjects for work are at the top. So you were probably steered benignly away from things at school when you were a kid, things you liked, on the grounds that you would never get a job doing that. Is that right? Don’t do music, you’re not going to be a musician; don’t do art, you won’t be an artist. Benign advice – now, profoundly mistaken.
  2. academic ability, which has really come to dominate our view of intelligence because the universities designed the system in their image.

The whole system of public education around the world is a protracted process of university entrance.

And the consequence is that many highly talented, brilliant, creative people think they’re not, because the thing they were good at school wasn’t valued, or was actually stigmatized. And I think we can’t afford to go on that way.

12:24 Degrees aren’t worth anything.

40 лет назад, если у тебя был диплом, у тебя была работа, а если работы не было, то лишь потому, что тебе не хотелось работать.

Сейчас же студенты сразу после выпуска идут обратно домой играть в видеоигры, ведь там, где раньше хватало бакалавра, теперь требуют магистра, а на его место нужен кандидат наук.

Эта инфляция образования — признак того, что вся образовательная структура рушится у нас под ногами. Мы должны переосмыслить своё представление о разуме.

12:57 We know three things about intelligence:

1. It’s diverse. We think about the world in all the ways that we experience it. We think: we 

  • visually;
  • in sound;
  • kinesthetically.

We think in abstract terms, we think in movement.

2.  intelligence is dynamic, intelligence is wonderfully interactive. The brain isn’t divided into compartments.  

In fact, creativity – which I define as the process of having original ideas that have value — more often than not comes about through the interaction of different disciplinary ways of seeing things.

3. intelligence is distinct.

I believe our only hope for the future is – to adopt a new conception of human ecology, one in which we start to reconstitute our conception of the richness of human capacity.

Our education system has mined our minds in the way that we strip-mine the earth: for a particular commodity.

And for the future, it won’t serve us. We have to rethink the fundamental principles on which we’re educating our children. 

What TED celebrates is the gift of the human imagination. We have to be careful now that we use this gift wisely and that we avert some of the scenarios that we’ve talked about.

And the only way we’ll do it is by seeing our creative capacities for the richness they are and seeing our children for the hope that they are. And our task is to educate their whole being, so they can face this future. And our job is to help them make something of it.


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Mosquitos, malaria and education | Bill Gates TED 2009

The market does not drive the scientists, the communicators, the thinkers, the governments to do the right things. And only by paying attention to these things and having brilliant people who care and draw other people in can we make as much progress as we need to.

But before I dive into those I want to admit that I am an optimist. Any tough problem, I think it can be solved.

1:14  Over the past century:

    • the average lifespan has more than doubled
    • the childhood death rate has been halved

The key reason we were able to it was not only rising incomes but also a few key breakthroughs.

2:44 1. Malaria

How do we stop a deadly disease that’s spread by mosquitos?

  1.  killing the mosquitos with DDT
  2. treating patients with quinine or quinine derivatives.

In the 1970s the U.S. and most of Europe have gotten rid of it.

Because the disease is only in the poorer countries, it doesn’t get much investment.

Over 200 million people at any one time are suffering from it. It means that you can’t get the economies in these areas going because it just holds things back so much.

When you use indoor spraying with DDT and bed nets you can cut deaths by over 50 percent.

If you go into a country with the right tools and the right way, you do it vigorously, you can actually get a local eradication. And that’s where we saw the malaria map shrinking. Or, if you go in kind of half-heartedly, for a period of time you’ll reduce the disease burden, but eventually, those tools will become ineffective, and the death rate will soar back up again.

7:58  2. How do you make a teacher great?

All of us here had some great teachers. And if you look at the economy, it really is only providing opportunities now to people with a better education.

Over 30 percent of kids never finish high school.  For minority kids, it’s over 50 percent.  And even if you graduate from high school, if you’re low-income, you have less than a 25 percent chance of ever completing a college degree. If you’re low-income in the United States, you have a higher chance of going to jail than you do of getting a four-year degree.

10:51 How to make education better?

Now, our foundation, for the last nine years, has invested in this. We’ve worked on small schools, we’ve funded scholarships, we’ve done things in libraries. A lot of these things had a good effect. But the more we looked at it, the more we realized that

having great teachers was the very key thing. 

We discovered that:

a top quartile teacher will increase the performance of their class by over 10 percent in a single year. That means that if the entire U.S., for two years, had top quartile teachers, the entire difference between us and Asia would go away. Within four years we would be blowing everyone in the world away.

But just appreciating the work of such people is not enough.

Once somebody has taught for three years their teaching quality does not change thereafter.

12:38 This chart takes four different factors and says how much do they explain teaching quality.

  1. Master’s degree  – no effect at all
  2. Teach for America: slight effect.
  3. More important – a period of teaching
  4. Most important – Past Performance.

On average, the slightly better teachers leave the system. And it’s a system with very high turnover.

Now, there are a few places  where great teachers are being made:

A good example of one is a set of charter schools called KIPP.  They take the poorest kids,and over 96 percent of their high school graduates go to four-year colleges.

What to do?

  • provide a lot of teacher tests
  • check results
  • share the information
  • make conclusions

I really think that education is the most important thing to get right for the country to have as strong a future as it should have.

There’s a lot more problems like that — AIDS, pneumonia e.t.c.  And the skill sets required to tackle these things are very broad. You know the system doesn’t naturally make it happen. Governments don’t naturally pick these things in the right way. The private sector doesn’t naturally put its resources into these things.

So it’s going to take brilliant people like you to study these things, get other people involved –and you’re helping to come up with solutions. And with that, I think there are some great things that will come out of it.